Friday, December 13, 2019

Philippine Literature Free Essays

A Brief History of Philippine Literature in English I. Pre-Colonial Period –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consisted of early Filipino literature passed down orally; oral pieces have a  communal  authorship – it was difficult to trace the original author of the piece since oral literature did not focus on ownership or copyright, rather on the act of storytelling itself; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Many oral pieces became lost in the wave of the new literary influence brought about by the Spanish colonization; however, according to the  Philippine Literature: A History amp; Anthology, English Edition (Lumbera, B. amp; Lumbera C. We will write a custom essay sample on Philippine Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now ), the pre-colonial period of Philippine literature is considered the longest in the country’s history; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Literature in this period is based on tradition, reflecting daily life activities such as housework, farming, fishing, hunting, and taking care of the children as well; –   Ã‚   Oral pieces told stories which explained heroes and their adventures; they attempted to explain certain natural phenomena, and, at the same time, served as entertainment purposes;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pre-colonial literature showed certain elements that linked the Filipino culture to other Southeast Asian countries (e. g. oral pieces which were performed through a tribal dance have certain similarities to the Malay dance); –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This period in Philippine literature history represented the ethos of the people before the arrival of a huge cultural influence – literature as a cultural tradition, than a form of art that had a particular set of decorum.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Early Forms of Philippine Literature:   Ã‚   Bugtong (riddles; a bugtong contains a metaphor called,Talinghaga), Salawikain (proverb);     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Pre-colonial p oetry – Tanaga (expresses a view or a value of the world), Ambahan (songs about childhood, human relationships, hospitality; sung by the Mangyan), Duplo (verbal jousts/games), Bayok (thoughts about love), Balagtasan (performed on stage);   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Epic poetry – romantic heroes and heroines that are a reflection of the world as perceived by the early Filipinos.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Notable Works of the Pre-colonial Period:   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚     Ã‚   Tuwaang, Lam-ang, Hinilawod, Bantugan II. Spanish Colonial Period (Mid-16th – late 19th century) –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Spanish culture, as reflected in the works of this literature period, showed a clash with the pre-colonial Filipino literature in the beginning. However, due to the length of stay of the colonizers, the Spanish culture was eventually imbued in the Filipino literature of the period; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Religion became an important theme that had influenced the early Filipino writings which had the presence of paganism – â€Å"Christian Folk-Tale†;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, the influence of religion, besides on the daily life of the natives, was lead by the friar/missionary/parish priest who were appointed by the Spanish government; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Despite the goal of the Spanish government to turn the country into a full-fledged European colony, the Spanish influence ironically ins pired a reformation from the natives, which eventually turned into a revolution; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Yet regardless of the conflicts that plagued the relationship between the Spaniards and the Filipinos, a sense of nationalism was formed among the oppressed, and had caused them to rise up to a nationalistic cause;    The  essay  genre was recognized amidst the scene of editorial protest – Jose Rizal and Plaridel (Marcelo H. Del Pilar) were among those who opt in using the pen in voicing out the people’s cry instead of the sword; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Introduction of the roman alphabet that gradually replaced the ‘alibata’; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Filipino literature of this period became the predecessor of many more literary works to come in the ages, wherein the theme of nationalism and freedom of speech would be evident.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Philippine Literature and Art during the Spanish Period:   Ã‚   Pasyon and Sinakulo (religious dramas performed during the Holy Week);   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Narrative Poems – Awit; Corrido;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Komedya – a theatrical performance which captured the ideal European lifestyle as portrayed by medieval characters  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Notable Works of the Spanish Period: o  Ã‚   Doctrina Christiana (1593) – the first book ever published in the Philippines; printed by the Dominican Press;   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   May Bagyo Mat’ May Rilim – according to literary historian, Bienvenido Lumbera, is the first printed literary work in Tagalog;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Christong P. Natin na Tola (1704) – eventually referred to as â€Å"Pasyon,† was written by Gaspar Aquino de Belen; an example of Christian folk epic in which the passion of Jesus Christ was written in relation with the plight of the Filipino people who were oppressed by the colonizers, as well as the values of a Filipino;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Ninay (1885) – first Filipino novel written; Pedro Paterno;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Florante at Laura – Francisco â€Å"Balagtas† Baltazar; though there are symbols and themes which dictate the protest of the Filipino against the Spanish regime, it is uncertain as to whether or not Balagtas had intended the issue – which was subtly derived from his work – since he left no notes or additional pieces hat may affirm the conclusion;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Noli Me Tangere (1887) and El Filibusterismo (1891) – Jose Rizal; works which created an impact on the national consciousness and love for one’s country against the abusive government of the Spaniards;     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   La Solidaridad – Propagandist newspaper. III. American Colonial Period (Late 19th – Mid-20th century) –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The gradual decline of the Philippine literature written in Spanish; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The English language eventually became the medium of writing and instruction in schools; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As the Spanish colonizers left the country in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, the spirit of nationalism and the desire to be acknowledged of independence did not disappear just yet. Instead, these uniting forces geared into revolting against the new colonizers; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   During the American colonization period, Phi lippine literature reflected the ethos of its people under a new role. However, these day-to-day experiences under a new foreign influence, as well as sentiments, were expressed through the English language; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Spanish ‘sarsuwela’ was eventually replaced by the ‘drama’; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One major influence of the American occupation on the Filipino literature is its refining in the context of the content and the form. Furthermore, because of this broadened knowledge on the field of literature through the education provided by the American government, Philippine literature has become more than a tradition formed by culture. It has become an art which succeeding poets, fictionists, and playwrights continue to build upon and enrich in every generation; –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Beginning with Rizal’s use of social realism as one of the major hemes for his two major novels, the literature during the American colonization also became an involvement, not just reflecting the Filipino experience – a strengthened sense of nationalism deeply rooted in the Filipino pride and culture; –   Ã‚  Ã‚   Unlike in the Spanish colonization period wherein female writers (e. g. Gregoria de Jesus) were overshadowed by their more dominant, male contemporaries – as a result of the education only being provided to a selected and privileged few –   during the American occupation, women have had their opportunity to enhance their talent by being educated on the craft. In addition, the growing popularity of works written by Filipina writers is the result of the growing audience appreciating literature by females.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Philippine Literature and Art during the American Period:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Short Story o  Ã‚   Poetry in English   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Free Verse in Poetry   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Drama  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã ‚  Ã‚   Notable Works of the American Period: o  Ã‚     Mga Agos sa Disyerto (1964) – Efren R. Abueg, Edgardo M. Reyes, Eduardo Bautista Reyes, Rogelio L. Ordonez and Rogelio R. Sikat; this short story anthology brought fiction into the age of modernism;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Ako ang Daigdig (1940) – Alejandro G. Abadilla; free verse poem;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   o  Ã‚   Sa Dakong Silangan – Jose Corazon de Jesus; a poem written in the vernacular http://lourdesbraceros. weebly. com/a-brief-history-of-philippine-literature-in-english. html How to cite Philippine Literature, Papers Philippine Literature Free Essays Literature  (from  Latin  litterae  (plural);  letter) is the  art  of  written work  and can, in some circumstances, refer exclusively to published sources. The wordliterature  literally means â€Å"things made from letters† and the  pars pro toto  term  Ã¢â‚¬Å"letters†Ã‚  is sometimes used to signify â€Å"literature,† as in the  figures of speech†arts  and letters† and â€Å"man of letters. † Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction and non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose. We will write a custom essay sample on Philippine Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original imagination, such as  polemical  works as well asautobiography, and reflective essays as well as  belles-lettres. Literature can be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. The concept of  genre, which earlier was limited, has broadened over the centuries. A genre consists of artistic works which fall within a certain central theme, and examples of genre include  romance,  mystery,  crime,  fantasy,  erotica, and  adventure, among others. Important historical periods in  English literature  includeOld English,  Middle English, the  Renaissance, the 17th Century  Shakespearean  and  Elizabethan  times, the 18th Century  Restoration, 19th Century  Victorian, and 20th Century  Modernism. Important political movements that have influenced literature include  feminism,  post-colonialism,  psychoanalysis,  post-structuralism,  post-modernism,  romanticism, and  Marxism. Literature’s three main divisions When most people speak of literature they may be talking about short stories, novels, poems, verse, odes, plays, tragedies, even limericks. This wide variety of terms describing types of literature, at first, appears overwhelming. However figuring all of this out is simplified when you take into account that the menagerie of types begins with three major paradigms: prose, poetry, and drama. Prose Prose  is derived from a Latin root word,  prosa, that means â€Å"straightforward† (other scholars argue that the root for â€Å"prose† is  proversa oratio,  which means † straightforward discourse. † Prose is generally defined as direct, common language presented in a straightforward manner. A victim of  identity by negation,  prose is frequently defined as â€Å"that which is not poetry. Prose demonstrates purposeful grammatic design in that it is constructed strategically by the author to create specific meaning. Prose also contains  plot  and the attendant narrative structures of plot. In most cultures, prose narrative tends to appear after a culture has developed  verse. Prosege nres  are many and varied, ranging from science fiction to romance. The major generic divisions of prose are: * novel  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ A lengthy fictional prose narrative. * novella  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ A fictional prose narrative ranging from 50 to 100 pages, most common in science fiction and detective fiction. * short story  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ a brief fictional prose narrative. anecdote  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ A very brief account of some interesting, usually humorous, event. Poetry Poetry, from the Greek  poetes  which means â€Å"doer† or â€Å"creator,† is a catch-all term that is applied to any form of rhythmical or metrical composition. While poetry is considered to be a subset of  verse  (and also considered to be superior to verse) both are rhythmical/metrical. What distinguishes poetry from verse is its â€Å"imaginative quality, intricate structure, serious or lofty subject matter, or noble purpose. † Most culture’s first serious literary works are poetry (In Western tradition, we need look only as far as Homer and Hesiod). The purposes of poetry are said to include: 1. A  didactic  purpose, meaning that it aims to instruct the reader. 2. Unique insight that is not available in other genres. 3. To provide pleasure to the reader. 4. To uplift the reader to some higher insight or meaning. Drama Drama, is simply a work that is written to be performed on stage by actors. From the Greekdran, meaning â€Å"to do,† drama is thought to have developed from ancient religious ceremonies. For instance, Greek  comedy  is traced to ancient fertility rites. Tragedy  (which comes from the Greek word How to cite Philippine Literature, Essay examples

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